Generalized Quantum Subspace Expansion

Nobuyuki Yoshioka, Hideaki Hakoshima, Yuichiro Matsuzaki, Yuuki Tokunaga, Yasunari Suzuki, Suguru Endo

One of the major challenges for erroneous quantum computers is undoubtedly the control over the effect of noise. Considering the rapid growth of available quantum resources that are not fully fault tolerant, it is crucial to develop practical hardware-friendly quantum error mitigation (QEM) techniques to suppress unwanted errors. Here, we propose a novel generalized quantum subspace expansion method which can handle stochastic, coherent, and algorithmic errors in quantum computers. By fully exploiting the substantially extended subspace, we can efficiently mitigate the noise present in the spectra of a given Hamiltonian, without relying on any information of noise. The performance of our method is discussed under two highly practical setups: the quantum subspaces are mainly spanned by powers of the noisy state ρm and a set of error-boosted states, respectively. We numerically demonstrate in both situations that we can suppress errors by orders of magnitude, and show that our protocol inherits the advantages of previous error-agnostic QEM techniques as well as overcoming their drawbacks.

Physical Review Letters: